MANUAL Published: 17 December 2018
MNL120170022

Chapter 4 | Fuels for Land and Marine Diesel Engines and for Nonaviation Gas Turbines

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Fuels for land and marine diesel engines and for nonaviation gas turbines consist of diesel or biodiesel blends used in diesel engines or nonaviation gas turbine engines. The broad definition of fuels for land and marine diesel engines and for nonaviation gas turbines covers many possible combinations of volatility, ignition quality, viscosity, gravity, stability, and other properties. The basic fuel requirements for land and marine diesel engines and for nonaviation gas turbines are addressed in ASTM D975, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils, ASTM D6751, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock [B100] for Middle Distillate Fuel (up to 5 volume percent biodiesel) and ASTM D7467, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B6 to B20), and ASTM D2880, Standard Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils, which includes naphthas, Jet B, aviation fuel and other light hydrocarbons liquids. Diesel engine fuels are used primarily in passenger car and highway truck service. They are also used in off-highway utility trucks, farm machinery, marine engines, and other diesel engines used in a variety of service applications. ASTM D975 defines diesel as a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, containing small amounts of additives. Biodiesel is a fuel comprised primarily of mono-alkyl esters of long chained fatty acids, derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated as B100. Diesel engine fuel includes both diesels and biodiesel blends. Diesel is a complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons that vary widely in their physical and chemical properties. It is a blend of many hydrocarbons derived from the fractional distillation of crude petroleum and from complex refinery processes that increase either the amount or the quality of diesel.

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Chandler, John
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Developed by Committee: D02
Pages: 37–56
DOI: 10.1520/MNL120170022
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-7109-1
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-7108-4