Test methods used to characterize the properties of petroleum coke, pitch, carbon artifacts (anodes and cathodes), and manufactured carbon products and graphite are presented in this chapter. This includes the raw materials and artifacts used in the electrolytic production of aluminum as well as graphite and its artifacts. Source of this information is ASTM standards and Introduction to Carbon Technologies, Sciences of Carbon Materials, Carbon and Graphite Handbook, and Chemistry and Physics of Carbon. ASTM Subcommittee D02.05 on Properties of Fuels, Petroleum Coke, and Carbon Material develops the test methods for coke, pitch, and for electrode carbon products. ASTM Subcommittee D02.F on Manufactured Carbon and Graphite develops the test methods for manufactured carbon and graphite. The aluminum industry prepares prebaked amorphous carbon electrodes from pitch and calcined petroleum coke. The electrolytic industry uses graphite electrodes because graphite is resistant to chemical attack under harsh conditions, and no other material can withstand such an aggressive environment. Graphite's excellent high-temperature properties allow its use in nuclear, aerospace, and propulsion applications.