Affected by the train vibration load, the frequency characteristics of the subway tunnel frequency spectrum are unstable, resulting in a low accuracy of the analysis results of the subway vibration load response characteristics. Therefore, the analysis method of the subway vibration load response characteristics based on the finite element method is designed. The acceleration index is used to evaluate the impact of vibration on the environment. According to the evaluation results, the soil constitutive model is constructed, the basic characteristics of the dynamic stress-strain relationship of the soil are analyzed, and the influencing factors of the vibration load calculation are determined. The three-dimensional finite element model of subway tunnel is established by using the finite element analysis software, and the linear time history analysis of the model is carried out by using the direct integration method. The time step is obtained to ensure the accuracy of the calculation results, so as to realize the accurate analysis of the response characteristics of subway vibration load. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the design method is high, and the frequency spectrum obtained by the analysis is basically the same as the actual frequency spectrum, which shows that the method has practical application significance.
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