Journal Published Online: 14 September 2021
Volume 50, Issue 6

Long-Term Swelling Characteristics of Montmorillonite Clay with and without Fly Ash: Wetting–Drying Cycle Influence in 1D Oedometer Condition



The utilization of fly ash (FA) produced from various thermal power plants and other industrial sources is a big challenge and an opportunity for material and civil engineers. This study aims to utilize FA for improving the engineering characteristics of Montmorillonitic Indian clay (BC) soil. A rigorous testing plan is designed and performed using different proportions of FA (5, 15, 25, and 35 %) to investigate the time-dependent deformation behavior of expansive BC soil and also to examine the influence of the wetting–drying cycle on the time-dependent swelling behavior of reconstituted soils in Oedometric free swell condition. It is proposed to evaluate the time-dependent parameters of the FA-BC matrix under wetting–drying cycles using the elastoviscoplastic considering swelling (EVPS) model. The mineralogical characteristics of both natural and reconstituted samples were investigated using the scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. From the experimental result, it is observed that the time-dependent swelling coefficient decreases with the percentage of FA content increase. The FA used in the study results in decreasing not only the swelling potential of BC soil samples but also the swelling–shrinkage behavior of the soil. It is observed that the reconstituted soils are influenced by both the degree of FA content and the wetting–drying cycles. The swelling strain limit decreases exponentially with the increase of the FA content. The EVPS model works very well in predicting the long-term consolidation and swelling behavior of the FA-BC matrix under different stress states.

Author Information

Johnson Singh, Moirangthem
Discipline of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Borana, Lalit
Discipline of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Weiqiang, Feng
Department of Ocean Sciences and Engineering, The Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China
Xu, Dong-Sheng
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan Shi, Hubei Sheng, People’s Republic of China
Pages: 18
Price: $25.00
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Stock #: JTE20210248
ISSN: 0090-3973
DOI: 10.1520/JTE20210248