Snowdrift is a major natural hazard, endangering basic installation and human life in cold regions. Drifting snow can cause snow grains to accumulate on the road, blocking transportation, reducing visibility, and even leading to fatal traffic accidents. Field measurements and numerical simulations of roadbed snow characteristics were carried out along the railway in snowy weather to study the effect of snowdrift on railway subgrade. The influence of a typical roadbed structure is considered, and the basic model of a typical subgrade structure under the action of snowdrift is proposed. Snow particles that accumulate on the embankment present a U-shaped distribution along the inflow direction. Within the increase of embankment height, wind velocity on the roadbed surface is accelerated, and snow cover is reduced, thus mitigating the snow drift disaster of the embankment. Snow covers at embankment heights of 1 and 2 m are considerably greater than those at 3 and 5 m, and identical with those at roadbed heights of 3 and 5 m. Along the inflow direction, the snow cover on the cutting presents an M-shaped distribution. As cutting depth is reduced, wind velocity inside the cutting is decelerated, and snow cover is increased, which aggravates the snow drift disaster of the cutting. The snow depths of roadbed parts at 1-, 2-, and 3-m depths of the cutting are nearly the same, and that at a 5-m depth of the cutting is relatively small but still larger than that on the embankment. Numerically simulating the snow-driving wind via computational fluid dynamics, which can consider the motion characteristics of snow particles and their influence on flow field, is feasible. Simulation results agree with the measured results. Thus, this research provides a path for the further prediction of snow cover pattern.