Fatigue failure under out-of-phase loading is a fairly common type of damage mode. For the reliable design of mechanical components under such loading, there is a strong need for the development of a compatible fatigue life prediction criterion. Many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed since the early 1900s, and most of them are limited to proportional loading cases. Although some can be extended for out-of-phase loading, additional work must be done for general applicability. In this paper, data are correlated using an empirically modified approach which attempts to be more general. Modified from Findley's formula, this approach incorporates three mathematical expressions for the effects of out-of-phase loading, mean bending stress, and mean torsional stress on fatigue behavior. The reliability of this approach is evaluated by comparing analytically predicted results with experimental data from various publications.
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