The art and science of testing sampling systems for bias has been controversial from its beginnings, some 35 years ago. Since then it has evolved as a discipline of increasingly broad scope and complexity. Currently under consideration as a standard practice, it involves univariate, multivariate, parametric, and nonparametric statistical treatments, static and dynamic operating modes, single and two-stage tests, and matched samples consisting of single increments, sublots, and lots. Testing for bias has been encumbered with an ever-expanding set of myths, misconceptions, and mistakes. The author explores the most common and grievous among them using graphics to help the reader visualize the issues.
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