This paper discusses some of the problems in handling liquids that are particularly clean. Practical solutions are provided for problems involved in measuring contamination at low levels and empirically derived methods are given for liquid-handling systems and techniques to minimize artifact introduction. The problems of correlating results from one method to another are discussed. Procedures for calibration of automatic particle counters are considered. Some of the errors that can occur in terms of coincidence and system dynamic range are mentioned. Along with control of solid and liquid artifact introduction, procedures for batch and in-line samples are discussed to minimize bubble effects. The problems involved in sample acquisition and in sample handling are considered.
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