The IEEE 1262 standard provides qualification tests and specification to evaluate photovoltaic (PV) modules intended for power generation applications. The hail impact test is one of the tests. It is conducted to verify that the module will withstand a simulated hail impact without damage. The modules are tested with 1-in. diameter ice balls traveling at a velocity of 52 miles/h. Based on the results, the use of 3-mm tempered glass substrate for processing is recommended to withstand the hail impact test. The stresses developed by the samples during the hail impact test have been estimated.
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