A state-of-the-art review of the various basic types of soil-stress gages available today (1973) is presented. The basic parameters that influence soil-stress measurements as well as the design and evaluation criteria of soil stress gage instrumentation for laboratory and field applications are discussed. Soil-stress gage performance is evaluated in terms of geometry, stiffness, pressure-sensitive and gross gage areas, unit weight, natural frequency, calibration, waterproofing, temperature sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio, and placement characteristics.
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