Journal Published Online: 23 October 2006
Volume 35, Issue 3

Test Method to Evaluate Bruising During Impacts to Apples and Compare Cushioning Materials



Developing simplified and accurate test methods to quantify and compare performance of impact levels to sensitive produce is a challenge. Despite a variety of packaging options available today, bruising damage is commonplace for post-harvest apples throughout the supply chain. The major sources of bruising are compression, impact, or vibration forces. Understanding where these forces occur can help reduce this type of mechanical damage to apples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact characteristics of foam net and corrugated board when applied as wrapping for individual apples. Two grades (count numbers 80 and 100) of “Fuji” cultivar apples imported to Thailand from China were studied. A simple ballistic pendulum test device was developed to measure bruise volume to impact energy relationship. A linear relationship for both types of apples was observed. Bruise volume occurrence probability and impact energy relationship fitted by linear regression were created for cushioned and bare apples. Absorbed energy of various cushioning materials was also calculated under compressive forces.

Author Information

Jarimopas, B.
Kastsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakornpathom, Thailand
Sayasoonthorn, S.
Kastsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakornpathom, Thailand
Singh, S.
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
Singh, Jagjit
Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, CA
Pages: 6
Price: $25.00
Reprints and Permissions
Reprints and copyright permissions can be requested through the
Copyright Clearance Center
Stock #: JTE100584
ISSN: 0090-3973
DOI: 10.1520/JTE100584