Studies have described measures associated with assault in the community, but few have identified measures associated with assault in prison or prison psychiatric treatment. In this study, prison assault histories and assaults while in prison psychiatric treatment for 222 randomly selected male inmates were evaluated. Using record reviews, interviews, neuropsychological, Rorschach, and psychopathy measures, risk factors for assault in prison and in prison psychiatric treatment were identified. Youth Authority placement, inhalant use, antisocial lifestyle, neurological injury, neuropsychological impairment, and higher PCL-R Factor II ratings were associated with assault in prison. Absence of major mental disorder, neurological impairment, or psychotic thinking, but presence of psychopathy was associated with assault in prison psychiatric treatment. In identifying risk for violence, the importance of (1) the context in which violence occurs; (2) the need for clear admission criteria for prison psychiatric treatment; and (3) the need to develop risk assessments that are specific to prison environments are emphasized.
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