Sleep consists of two complex states—NREM and REM sleep—and disturbances of the boundaries between the states of sleep and wakefulness may result in violence. We investigated our population for reports of violence associated with sleep. REM behavior disorder is rarely associated with injury to the sufferer or others. NREM sleep related nocturnal wandering associated with self-inflicted injuries has variable etiologies. In the elderly, it is associated with dementia. In young individuals, it may be associated with mesio-temporal or mesio-frontal foci and an indication of a complex partial seizure. It also may be related to abnormal alertness and is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, micro-sleeps, and hypnagogic hallucinations in sleep disorders such as narcolepsy or sleep disordered breathing.
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