STR typing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing were performed on the matter adhering to an earphone found at a crime scene. Experimental studies were carried out using the earphones provided by volunteers. By means of immunohistochemistry, keratinocytes and a portion of nucleated epithelial cells were proven to exist in the contents from the earphones. DNA was extracted by means of the phenol/chloroform method, and the low quantity of extracted DNA was found to be highly degraded. Six STR loci, CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS and vWA, were PCR amplified and typed by using two triplex systems (CTT and FFv Multiplexes, Promega, WI), and an amelogenin locus was determined as well. Although partial profiles were observed in some experimental samples, all STR loci could be typed when a considerable amount of high molecular weight DNA was obtained (_0.5 ng/_L). Amplification and sequencing of mtDNA hypervariable region I (15997-16401) and hypervariable region II (29-408) were all successful. The mitochondrial DNA sequence of the actual case sample, comprising two hypervariable regions and a total of 785 base pairs, showed eight mutations and two insertions with respect to the standard published reference sequence. The genotype was unique in the three published Japanese databases. These results suggest that it is possible to analyze mtDNA from minute amounts of materials and from degraded materials more effectively and routinely in forensic practice.