A blood group substance (BGS), a protein with ABH antigenic activity, was isolated from human seminal plasma and designated as p 84 (Sato, 1995) (1). We have developed a method for determining the ABO blood type of semen by performing a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which p 84 is captured with an anti-p 84 monoclonal antibody, and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of this method. Although BGS activity was detected in semen sensitively by this method, it was not detected in saliva, urine, breast milk, blood or vaginal secretions. Since the concentration of p 84 in semen was independent of the secretion status, the status can be determined as non-secretor when p 84 but not BGS activity was detected. To determine the stability of BGS activity on p 84, dried stains of semen on filter paper were kept at 4, 26, and 37°C for 8 months, 2 years and 1 month, respectively, and their BGS activities were examined. After 8 months at 4°C, over 60% of the original BGS activity was recovered from the stain. The activity could be detected even from a square as small as 0.25 by 0.25 cm. After 1 month at 37°C and 2 years at 26°C, 31 and 20% of the BGS activity, respectively, still remained. It could be detected from the pieces of 1.0 by 1.0 cm and 0.5 by 0.5 cm squares, kept for 1 month at 37°C and 2 years at 26°C, respectively. Finally, semen was mixed with saliva or blood at varying volumetric ratios and used for the sources of dried stains. The BGS activity of p 84 could be detected in the stains until the ratio between semen and saliva or blood reached 1:4. We conclude that this sandwich ELISA offers a more sensitive and specific method for determining the ABO blood type of semen samples obtained from sexual assault victims than existing methods, such as the conventional absorption-elution and classical hemagglutination-inhibition tests.