PSA is currently being used to detect and monitor quantitatively the development of prostate cancer by serum levels of PSA and has also been found to be present in high concentrations in semen. Elegantly simple, sensitive, and reproducible methods have been developed for analysis of the presence of PSA, including the Tandem-E PSA Immunoenzymetric Assay. The most common procedures for the forensic identification of semen have focused on the microscopic detection of sperm, acid phosphatase activity, and immunoelectrophoretic methods for the detection of PSA. Although these methods have been used for many years, there are problems associated with each method. The Tandem-E PSA Immunoenzymetric Assay detected PSA in 100% of the forensic casework fabric samples, 80% of the forensic casework vaginal swabs and 100% of the vasectomized individuals tested. The cut-off values was determined to be 1.77 ng/mL. These results indicate that this method can be used to identify the presence of semen in forensically significant specimens.
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