The practical implications are described for a previously reported charge transport model of the electrostatic detection apparatus [Seward GH. J Appl Phys 1998;83(3):1450–6]. Several steps within the ESDA process are theoretically evaluated by the model: humidification of specimen, duration of charging, and duration of discharge prior to application of toner. Recommendations for improved sensitivity are derived from the theoretical models as well as experimental observations.
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