Human urine has not been adequately investigated as a potential source of DNA for forensic identity testing. The advent of polymerase chain reaction technology has made possible the analysis of previously undetectable levels of nucleic acids from human urine and other body fluids lacking nucleated cells. In this study, we evaluated the ability to genotype DNA extracted from adulterated urine specimens using the AmpliType® PM + DQA1 PCR amplification and typing system. Fresh, first-void male urine specimens were contaminated with household bleach, E. coli, human serum albumin, glucose and saponin (a strong detergent). All of the adulterated samples were typed without difficulty. Frozen male urine specimens were split into equal volumes; one aliquot was adulterated with either E. coli or saponin, and the other was left free of contaminants. Seventy-one percent of all frozen urine specimens tested (adulterated and unadulterated) were successfully typed using this amplification and typing system. Our data, therefore, suggest that the AmpliType® PM + DQA1 PCR amplification and typing system described is suitable for genotype analysis of adulterated fresh and frozen urine specimens.
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