A population study on five short tandem repeat (STR) loci and five sequence specific polymorphism loci was performed on unrelated Italian Caucasians. Separation and detection of the amplified STR fragments were carried out by high resolution vertical denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver staining, respectively. The sequence specific loci were analyzed using the AmpliType PM Typing Kit (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA). All loci, except Gc (p = 0.031), meet Hardy-Wienberg expectations. In addition, there is no evidence for association of alleles between pairs of loci. The combined power of discrimination for the five STR loci is 0.9999862 and for the PM loci is 0.99503. The results suggest that these loci may be useful for human identification cases in Italy.