As nondestructive identification techniques, optical microscopic observation, microscopic fluorescence spectroscopy, and specific gravity measurement were applied to examine evidentiary ivory-like seal materials. The cross-hatching pattern, which is known to be characteristic on the cross section of genuine elephant ivory, could be observed on each evidentiary ivory-like seal material, and the evidentiary seal materials were concluded to be made of soft-type African elephant ivory on the correlation of microscopic fluorescence intensity and specific gravity. This technique is novel and useful in inferring the source of African elephant ivory.
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