The allele frequency distributions of three STR loci amplified by PCR have been studied in four Israeli communities: Ashkenazi Jews and three non-Ashkenazi groups, namely Moroccan, Yemenite, and Ethiopian Jews. The loci analyzed were CSF1PO, TPOX, and HUMTHO1. The typing was performed in sequencing polyacrylamide gels under denaturing conditions that could separate alleles with differences of a single base. The population data were analyzed with respect to Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium and found that all loci meet the H-W expectations. Noticeable differences were encountered between the four Jewish ethnic groups studied hereby indicating the importance of establishing a local database to be used in human identity testing in these different Israeli Jewish groups.