This document is intended to serve as a best practice for the identiﬁcation and seeding of nondestructively detectable ﬂaw replicas of metal alloy powder bed fusion (PBF) and directed energy deposition (DED) processes. Three seeding categories are described:
• process ﬂaws through computer-aided design,
• build parameter manipulation, and
• subtractive manufacturing.
These include ﬂaws present within as-deposited materials, post heat-treated or hot isostatic pressing (HIP) processed material, and those ﬂaws made detectable because of postprocessing operations. Geometrical aspects or measurement are not the subjects of this document.
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