Post-grouting of deep foundations following installation is a proven technique for enhancing axial resistance. The grouting is performed either below the tip of the foundation only (e.g., post-tip-grouted drilled shafts) or at both the side and the tip (e.g., jetted, side, and tip-grouted precast piles). The interaction of such foundations in group placement is currently unknown. This research focused on the group behavior of post-tip-grouted drilled shafts and jetted, side, and tip-grouted piles at a center-to-center spacing of three times the pile/shaft diameter. The study revealed that the post-tip-grouted drilled shafts acted independently within the group (i.e., negligible group interaction), whereas jetted, side, and tip-grouted piles behaved as a block under axial loading. It was determined that side grouting of a foundation prior to tip grouting significantly increases the grout pressure developed during tip grouting and helps in the formation of a tip grout bulb via a spherical cavity expansion process. Thus, the side and tip grouting of adjacent foundations within a group increases the confining stress and relative density of the soil mass within the group, resulting in block behavior under top-down loading. In contrast, tip-only grouted foundations showed little if any increase in radial stress and radial soil displacement, resulting in minimal improvement of the soil stiffness between shafts; as a result there was no block behavior and a negligible group effect at the tip.
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