Standard Active Last Updated: Dec 13, 2017
ASTM G134-17

Standard Test Method for Erosion of Solid Materials by Cavitating Liquid Jet

Significance and Use

5.1 This test method may be used to estimate the relative resistances of materials to cavitation erosion, as may be encountered for instance in pumps, hydraulic turbines, valves, hydraulic dynamometers and couplings, bearings, diesel engine cylinder liners, ship propellers, hydrofoils, internal flow passages, and various components of fluid power systems or fuel systems of diesel engines. It can also be used to compare erosion produced by different liquids under the conditions simulated by the test. Its general applications are similar to those of Test Method G32.

5.2 In this test method cavitation is generated in a flowing system. Both the velocity of flow which causes the formation of cavities and the chamber pressure in which they collapse can be changed easily and independently, so it is possible to study the effects of various parameters separately. Cavitation conditions can be controlled easily and precisely. Furthermore, if tests are performed at constant cavitation number (σ), it is possible, by suitably altering the pressures, to accelerate or slow down the testing process (see 11.2 and Fig. A2.2).

5.3 This test method with standard conditions should not be used to rank materials for applications where electrochemical corrosion or solid particle impingement plays a major role. However, it could be adapted to evaluate erosion-corrosion effects if the appropriate liquid and cavitation number, for the service conditions of interest, are used (see 11.1).

5.4 For metallic materials, this test method could also be used as a screening test for applications subjected to high-speed liquid drop impingement, if the use of Practice G73 is not feasible. However, this is not recommended for elastomeric coatings, composites, or other nonmetallic aerospace materials.

5.5 The mechanisms of cavitation erosion and liquid impingement erosion are not fully understood and may vary, depending on the detailed nature, scale, and intensity of the liquid/solid interactions. Erosion resistance may, therefore, arise from a mix of properties rather than a single property, and has not yet been successfully correlated with other independently measurable material properties. For this reason, the consistency of results between different test methods (for example, vibratory, rotating disk, or cavitating jet) or under different experimental conditions is not very good. Small differences between two materials are probably not significant, and their relative ranking could well be reversed in another test.

5.6 Because of the nonlinear nature of the erosion-time curve in cavitation erosion, the shape of that curve must be considered in making comparisons and drawing conclusions. Simply comparing the cumulative mass loss at the same cumulative test time for all materials will not give a reliable comparison.

Scope

1.1 This test method covers a test that can be used to compare the cavitation erosion resistance of solid materials. A submerged cavitating jet, issuing from a nozzle, impinges on a test specimen placed in its path so that cavities collapse on it, thereby causing erosion. The test is carried out under specified conditions in a specified liquid, usually water. This test method can also be used to compare the cavitation erosion capability of various liquids.

1.2 This test method specifies the nozzle and nozzle holder shape and size, the specimen size and its method of mounting, and the minimum test chamber size. Procedures are described for selecting the standoff distance and one of several standard test conditions. Deviation from some of these conditions is permitted where appropriate and if properly documented. Guidance is given on setting up a suitable apparatus, test and reporting procedures, and the precautions to be taken. Standard reference materials are specified; these must be used to verify the operation of the facility and to define the normalized erosion resistance of other materials.

1.3 Two types of tests are encompassed, one using test liquids which can be run to waste, for example, tap water, and the other using liquids which must be recirculated, for example, reagent water or various oils. Slightly different test circuits are required for each type.

1.4 This test method provides an alternative to Test Method G32. In that method, cavitation is induced by vibrating a submerged specimen at high frequency (20 kHz) with a specified amplitude. In the present method, cavitation is generated in a flowing system so that both the jet velocity and the downstream pressure (which causes the bubble collapse) can be varied independently.

1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Details
Book of Standards Volume: 03.02
Developed by Subcommittee: G02.10
Pages: 17
DOI: 10.1520/G0134-17
ICS Code: 19.060