Significance and Use
4.1 The relative durability of materials in natural exposures can be very different depending on the location of the exposure because of differences in ultraviolet (UV) radiation, relative humidity, time of wetness, temperature, wet-dry cycling, freeze-thaw cycling, pollutants, and other factors. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that results from one exposure in a single location will be useful for determining relative durability in a different location. Exposures in several locations with different climates which represent a broad range of anticipated service conditions are recommended.
4.2 Because of year-to-year climatological variations, results from a single exposure test cannot be used to predict the absolute rate at which a material degrades. Several exposures, repeated over several years are needed to get a representative test result for a given location.
4.3 Solar UV radiation varies considerably as a function of time of year. This can cause large differences in the apparent rate of degradation in many materials. Comparing results for materials exposed for short periods (less than one year) is not recommended unless materials are exposed at the same time in the same location.
4.4 The duration of natural weathering tests is often based on time (24 months for example). The variability between different exposures can be reduced by using a duration based on total solar or solar UV radiant exposure. Solar UV measurements are typically made using instruments which record broadband UV (for example, 295 to 385 nm), as described in . An inherent limitation in timing a weathering test based solely on solar-radiation measurements is that temperature and moisture may also influence the rate or type of degradation.
4.5 The design of the exposure rack, the location of the specimen on the exposure rack, and the type, color, and emissivity of adjacent specimens can affect specimen temperature and time of wetness. In order to minimize variability caused by these factors, control and weathering reference material specimens should be placed adjacent to test specimens during exposure.
4.6 It is recommended that at least one control specimen be part of any exposure evaluation. When used, the control specimen shall meet the requirements of Terminology , and be of similar composition and construction compared to test specimens. It is preferable to use two control specimens, one with relatively good durability and one with relatively poor durability. Unless otherwise specified, use at least two replicate specimens of each test and control specimen being exposed. Control specimens included as part of a test shall be used for the purpose of comparing the performance of test specimens relative to the controls.
1.1 This practice covers procedures to be followed for direct exposure of materials to the environment. Typically, this testing is performed on exposure racks tilted at a commonly-used tilt angle from the horizontal (such as 5 or 45 degrees) and facing the equator. Other exposure orientations can be used.
1.2 This practice is not intended for the corrosion testing of bare metals, or for testing behind glass.
1.2.1 For corrosion testing, refer to Practice
1.2.2 For exposures behind glass, refer to Practice
1.3 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined.
1.4 This practice is technically equivalent to the parts of ISO 877-1 and -2 that describe direct exposures of specimens to the environment.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.