Significance and Use
4.1 A-UGVs navigate, dock, or perform other tasks, or combinations thereof, within for example manufacturing, warehouse, hospital, and other environments. Objects (defined in Terminology as anything in the environment that is not infrastructure) and obstacles (defined in Terminology as static or moving objects that obstruct the intended movement) are common within these environments. Objects can cause A-UGV challenges in navigation, docking, etc. (see Test Method , Guide ) where the object detection systems must provide the highest level of performance to allow safe and productive vehicle use. ASTM Committee F45 surveyed the A-UGV community of manufacturers, users, and researchers, and determined that a relatively short list of objects are the most common objects that their vehicles must detect and avoid. Additionally, ANSI/ITSDF B56.5 includes three test pieces that represent (1) the human body torso lying horizontally and (2) standing human leg, both with worst case, flat black coatings, and (3) flat objects (for example, boxes, doors, manufactured materials), including a worst case, highly (optically) reflective coating. The survey results are listed here and are considered example objects found in warehousing/manufacturing, healthcare, domestic, and retail environments:
4.1.1 Pallets, racking, wheeled carts;
4.1.2 Other A-UGVs or AMRs;
4.1.3 Steps or stairs;
4.1.4 Tables or desks, ladders;
4.1.5 Cables or hoses, or both;
4.1.6 Chairs, overhangs (that is, on objects);
4.1.7 IV poles; and
4.1.8 Forklifts/forklift tines.
As some objects may not be cost-effectively available for only A-UGV object detection tests (for example,, , and ), the remaining objects are potentially more cost-effective as objects and are described in this guide as the standard set of objects.
4.2 The objects can vary greatly within their category. For example, pallets can be made of wood, plastic, or metal; have a variety of dimensions; can have wheels or no wheels on the bottom; are not coated or coated with varying reflective coatings. As such, the standard objects set provided in this guide describes a specific set of objects and characteristics that are highly repeatable across their users.
4.3 The number of objects within the set is expected to increase as A-UGVs improve in capabilities and intelligence, and therefore, where A-UGV implementations expand.
1.1 This standard guide provides a standard set of reference objects for use with automatic, automated, or autonomous unmanned ground vehicles (A-UGVs). The objects set includes typical objects found within industrial areas including, but not limited to: warehouses, hospitals, office spaces, and manufacturing facilities. Also, the objects set includes three test pieces from ANSI/ITSDF B56.5. The objects set is intended for use by A-UGV manufacturers and users to test the performance of A-UGVs when near the object(s). The objects set is minimized to include characteristics that have proven to cause interrupted A-UGV operation. Beyond this set of objects, Test Method is used to record most any object.
1.2 The objects set contains one each of the following items: pallet, racking, ladder, cable cover, table, cart, intravenous (IV) pole, chair, forklift tines, and test pieces shown in ANSI/ITSDF B56.5, including a horizontal cylinder, vertical cylinder, and flat plate. The objects set is not intended to be exhaustive.
1.3 It is intended that the objects set mainly includes off-the-shelf items. This standard guide provides a reporting method to provide obstacle information (for example, model, serial number, photograph) to allow obstacle use for exact replication of tests.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are not precise mathematical conversion to imperial units. They are close approximate equivalents for the purpose of specifying material dimensions or quantities that are readily available to avoid excessive fabrication costs of test apparatuses while maintaining repeatability and reproducibility of the test method results. These values given in parentheses are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.