Standard Active Last Updated: Sep 20, 2021
ASTM F3045-21

Standard Test Method for Evaluation of the Type and Viscoelastic Stability of Water-in-oil Mixtures Formed from Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Mixed with Water

Significance and Use

4.1 A standard test is necessary to establish a behavior pattern for spilled crude oils or petroleum products at different oil weathering stages.

4.2 Water-in-oil mixtures vary with oil type and oil conditions such as weathering. Results from this test method form a baseline, and usually are a measure of behavior at sea.

4.3 This test has been developed over many years using standardized equipment, test procedures, and to overcome difficulties noted in other test procedures.

4.4 This test should be performed at the temperatures and degrees of weathering corresponding to the spill conditions of interest.


1.1 This test method covers a procedure to determine the water-in-oil emulsification tendencies and stabilities of crude oils and petroleum products in the laboratory. The results of this test method can provide oil behavior data for input into oil spill models.

1.2 This test method covers a specific method of determining emulsion tendencies and does not cover other procedures that may be applicable to determining emulsion tendencies.

1.3 The test results obtained using this test method are intended to provide baseline data for the behavior of oil and petroleum products at sea and input to oil spill models.

1.4 The test results obtained using this test method can be used directly to predict certain facets of oil spill behavior or as input to oil spill models.

1.5 The accuracy of the test method depends very much on the representative nature of the oil sample used. Certain oils can form a variety of water-in-oil types depending on their chemical contents at the moment a sample is taken. Other oils are relatively stable with respect to the type formed

1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 11.08
Developed by Subcommittee: F20.16
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/F3045-21
ICS Code: 13.020.40; 75.080