Standard Active Last Updated: Aug 19, 2021
ASTM F1736-21

Standard Guide for Irradiation of Finfish and Aquatic Invertebrates Used as Food to Control Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms

Standard Guide for Irradiation of Finfish and Aquatic Invertebrates Used as Food to Control Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms
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Significance and Use

4.1 Absorbed doses of or below 1 kGy can inactivate some parasites, such as the broad fish tapeworm (Dibothrocephalus latus) (2).

4.2 Absorbed doses below 10 kGy can reduce or eliminate vegetative cells of pathogenic sporeforming and non-sporeforming microorganisms, such as Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes, or Staphylococcus aureus, that may be present in fresh or frozen product.

4.2.1 Absorbed doses below 10 kGy can reduce the numbers of some spores, but are not adequate to reduce the potential health risk from microbial spores or toxins (3).

4.3 Absorbed doses below 10 kGy can reduce or eliminate the vegetative cells of sporeforming and non-sporeforming microorganisms, such as Bacillus or Pseudomonas species, that cause spoilage of fresh product, thus extending refrigerated shelf life in many cases (4).


1.1 This guide outlines procedures and operations for the irradiation of raw, untreated, fresh (chilled), or frozen finfish and aquatic invertebrates, while ensuring that the irradiated product is safe and wholesome.

1.1.1 Aquatic invertebrates include mollusks, crustacea, echinoderms, etc. Mollusks include bivalve shellfish, such as clams, mussels, and oysters; snails; and cephalopods, such as squid and octopus. Crustacea include shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, crabs, prawns and crayfish. Echinoderms include sea urchins and sea cucumbers.

1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses used to reduce the microbial and parasite populations in aquatic invertebrates and finfish. Such doses typically are below 10 kGy (1).2

1.2.1 This guide covers gamma, electron beam, and X-radiation treatment.

1.3 The use of reduced-oxygen packaging (vacuum or modified atmosphere, and including products packed in oil) with irradiated, raw product is not covered by this guide. The anaerobic environment created by reduced-oxygen packaging provides the potential for outgrowth of, and toxin production from, Clostridium botulinum spores.

1.4 This guide does not cover the irradiation of smoked or dried fish to reduce microbial load or to control insect infestation.

1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.6 This document is one of a set of standards that provides recommendations for properly implementing and utilizing radiation processing. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO/ASTM Practice 52628.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 12.02
Developed by Subcommittee: E61.05
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/F1736-21
ICS Code: 67.120.30