Standard Historical Last Updated: Aug 10, 2022 Track Document
ASTM F1291-16

Standard Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin

Standard Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin F1291-16 ASTM|F1291-16|en-US Standard Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin Standard new BOS Vol. 11.03 Committee F23
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Significance and Use

4.1 This test method can be used to quantify and compare the insulation provided by different clothing systems. For example, variations in the design and fabric used in component garments can be evaluated. The effects of garment layering, closure, and fit can be measured for clothing ensembles. The insulation values for ensembles can be used in models that predict the physiological responses of people in different environmental conditions. Garment insulation values can be compared as well (see Annex A1).

4.2 The measurement of the insulation provided by clothing is complex and dependent on the apparatus and techniques used. It is not practical in a test method of this scope to establish details sufficient to cover all contingencies. Departures from the instructions in this test method have the potential to lead to significantly different test results. Technical knowledge concerning the theory of heat transfer, temperature, and air motion measurement, and testing practices is needed to evaluate which departures from the instructions given in this test method are significant. Standardization of the method reduces, but does not eliminate, the need for such technical knowledge. Report any departures with the results.

4.3 Report the insulation values in SI units or clo units as standard procedure. Conversion factors to other units are given in Test Method D1518.


1.1 This test method covers the determination of the insulation value of clothing ensembles. It describes the measurement of the resistance to dry heat transfer from a heated manikin to a relatively calm, cool environment. Information on measuring the local thermal resistance values for individual garments and ensembles is provided in Annex A1.

1.1.1 This is a static test that provides a baseline clothing measurement on a standing manikin.

1.1.2 The effects of body position and movement are not addressed in this test method.

1.2 The insulation values obtained apply only to the particular ensembles evaluated and for the specified environmental conditions of each test, particularly with respect to air movement.

1.3 The values stated in either clo or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in parentheses. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.

1.4 The evaporative resistance of a clothing ensemble can be measured in accordance with Test Method F2370.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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Book of Standards Volume: 11.03
Developed by Subcommittee: F23.60
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/F1291-16
ICS Code: 61.020