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ASTM E3427-24

Standard Guide for Measuring Intensity, Polydispersity, Size, Zeta Potential, Molecular Weight, and Concentration of Nanoparticles in Liquid Suspension Using Laser-Amplified Detection/Power Spectrum Analysis (LAD/PSA) Technology

Standard Guide for Measuring Intensity, Polydispersity, Size, Zeta Potential, Molecular Weight, and Concentration of Nanoparticles in Liquid Suspension Using Laser-Amplified Detection/Power Spectrum Analysis (LAD/PSA) Technology E3427-24 ASTM|E3427-24|en-US Standard Guide for Measuring Intensity, Polydispersity, Size, Zeta Potential, Molecular Weight, and Concentration of Nanoparticles in Liquid Suspension Using Laser-Amplified Detection/Power Spectrum Analysis (LAD/PSA) Technology Standard new BOS Vol. 14.02 Committee E29
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Significance and Use

4.1 In this guide, the conditions, measurement apparatus, and procedures for measuring several characteristics of nanoparticle properties on three different instrument platforms using laser-amplified detection/power spectrum analysis (LAD/PSA) technology are described. This is a more recently developed technology, commercialized in 1990, than the older technology known as either photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) or quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS)—those titles are interchangeable—developed first in 1961. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is the most recent DLS technology to be commercialized. All three of these technologies fall under the broader category of DLS, based on the “dynamic” movement of the measured nanoparticles under Brownian motion.

4.2 DLS in the lower end of the nanometre size range becomes progressively more difficult as the particle optical scattering coefficients drop sharply, reducing the scattered light intensity. The advantage of the heterodyne detection mode over the homodyne detection mode, especially at the low end of the nanometre range, will be explained.

4.3 The LAD/PSA technology will be described and the major differences between it and the PCS-QLS and NTA technologies will be made clear. For thorough discussions of PCS-QLS, refer to Guide E2490, Test Method E3247, and ISO 22412 Annex Section A.1. For a thorough discussion of nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), refer to Guide E2834. For detailed information on laser-amplified detection/frequency power spectrum (LAD/FPS) technology, refer to ISO 22412 Annex Section A.2. General information on particle characterization practices can be found in Practice E1817, and nanotechnology terminology is given in Terminology E2456. Detailed information on sampling for particle characterization can be found in ISO 14488.

Scope

1.1 The technology, laser-amplified detection/power spectrum analysis (LAD/PSA), is available in three different platforms, which will be designated as Platforms A, B, and C.

1.1.1 Platform A—This is a solid-state probe configuration that serves as the optical bench in each of the platforms. It consists of an optical fiber coupler with a y-beam splitter that directs the scattered light signal from the nanoparticles at 180° back to a photodiode detector. The sensing end of the probe can be immersed in a suspension or positioned to measure one drop of a sample on top of the sensing surface.

1.1.2 Platform B—The same probe is mounted in a case, positioned horizontally, to detect the signal from either a disposable or permanent cuvette.

1.1.3 Platform C—Two probes are mounted in a case, horizontally, at opposite sides of a permanent sample cell. Both size distribution and zeta potential can be measured in this configuration.

1.2 The laser beam travelling through the probe measuring the scattered light from the sample of nanoparticles, in all three platforms, is partially reflected back to the same photodiode detector, and the high optical power of the laser is added to the low optical power of the scattered light signal. The interference (mixing or beating) of those two signals is known as heterodyne beating. The resulting high-power detected signal provides the highest signal-to-noise ratio among dynamic light-scattering (DLS) technologies.

1.3 This combined, amplified, optical signal is converted with a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) into a frequency power spectrum, then into a logarithmic power spectrum that is deconvolved into number and volume size distributions. The mean intensity, polydispersity, number and volume size distributions, concentration, and molecular weight can be reported in all platforms, plus zeta potential on Platform C.

1.4 This technology is capable of measuring nanoparticles in a size range from 2.0 nanometres (nm) to 10 micrometres (µm), at concentrations in a suspending liquid medium up to 40 % cc/mL for all parameters given in 1.3.

1.5 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Details
Book of Standards Volume: 14.02
Developed by Subcommittee: E29.02
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.1520/E3427-24
ICS Code: 19.120