Significance and Use
5.1 The purpose of this practice is to outline a procedure for using GWT to locate areas in metal pipes in which wall loss has occurred due to corrosion or erosion.
5.2 GWT does not provide a direct measurement of wall thickness, but is sensitive to a combination of the CSC (or reflection coefficient) and circumferential extent and axial extent of any metal loss. Based on this information, a classification of the severity can be assigned.
5.3 The GWT method provides a screening tool to quickly identify any discontinuity along the pipe. Where a possible defect is found, a follow-up inspection of suspected areas with ultrasonic testing or other NDT methods is normally required to obtain detailed thickness information, nature, and extent of damage.
5.4 GWT also provides some information on the axial length of a discontinuity, provided that the axial length is longer than roughly a quarter of the wavelength.
5.5 The identification and severity assessment of any possible defects is qualitative only. An interpretation process to differentiate between relevant and non-relevant signals is necessary.
5.6 This practice only covers the application specified in the scope. The GWT method has the capability and can be used for applications where the pipe is insulated, buried, in road crossings, and where access is limited.
5.7 GWT shall be performed by qualified and certified personnel, as specified in the contract or purchase order. Qualifications shall include training specific to the use of the equipment employed, interpretation of the test results, and guided wave technology.
5.8 A documented program which includes training, examination, and experience for the GWT personnel certification shall be maintained by the supplying party.
1.1 This practice provides a guide for the use of waves generated using magnetostrictive transduction for guided wave testing (GWT) welded tubulars. Magnetostrictive materials transduce or convert time varying magnetic fields into mechanical energy. As a magnetostrictive material is magnetized, it strains. Conversely, if an external force produces a strain in a magnetostrictive material, the material’s magnetic state will change. This bi-directional coupling between the magnetic and mechanical states of a magnetostrictive material provides a transduction capability that can be used for both actuation and sensing devices.
1.2 GWT utilizes ultrasonic guided waves in the 10 to approximately 250 kHz range, sent in the axial direction of the pipe, to non-destructively test pipes for discontinuities or other features by detecting changes in the cross-section or stiffness of the pipe, or both.
1.3 GWT is a screening tool. The method does not provide a direct measurement of wall thickness or the exact dimensions of discontinuities. However, an estimate of the severity of the discontinuity can be obtained.
1.4 This practice is intended for use with tubular carbon steel products having nominal pipe size (NPS) 2 to 48 corresponding to 60.3 to 1219.2 mm (2.375 to 48 in.) outer diameter, and wall thickness between 3.81 and 25.4 mm (0.15 and 1 in.).
1.5 This practice only applies to GWT of basic pipe configuration. This includes pipes that are straight, constructed of a single pipe size and schedules, fully accessible at the test location, jointed by girth welds, supported by simple contact supports and free of internal, or external coatings, or both; the pipe may be insulated or painted.
1.6 This practice provides a general practice for performing the examination. The interpretation of the guided wave data obtained is complex and training is required to properly perform data interpretation.
1.7 This practice does not establish an acceptance criterion. Specific acceptance criteria shall be specified in the contractual agreement by the cognizant engineer.
1.8 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.10 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.