Standard Active Last Updated: Jul 04, 2019
ASTM E2618-13(2019)

Standard Test Method for Measurement of Particulate Emissions and Heating Efficiency of Solid Fuel-Fired Hydronic Heating Appliances

Significance and Use

5.1 The measurement of particulate matter emission rates is an important test method widely used in the practice of air pollution control.

5.1.1 These measurements, when approved by federal or state agencies, are often required for the purpose of determining compliance with regulations and statutes.

5.1.2 The measurements made before and after design modifications are necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of design changes in reducing emissions and make this standard an important tool in manufacturer’s research and development programs.

5.2 Measurement of heating efficiency provides a uniform basis for comparison of product performance that is useful to the consumer. It is also required to relate emissions produced to the useful heat production.

5.3 This is a laboratory method and is not intended to be fully representative of all actual field use. It is recognized that users of hand-fired wood burning equipment have a great deal of influence over the performance of any wood-burning appliance. Some compromises in realism have been made in the interest of providing a reliable and repeatable test method.


1.1 This test method applies to wood-fired or automatically fed biomass burning hydronic heating appliances. These appliances transfer heat to the indoor environment through circulation of a liquid heat exchange media such as water or a water-antifreeze mixture.

1.2 The test method simulates hand loading of seasoned cordwood or fueling with a specified biomass fuel and measures particulate emissions and delivered heating efficiency at specified heat output rates based on the appliance’s rated heating capacity.

1.3 Particulate emissions are measured by the dilution tunnel method as specified in Test Method E2515. Delivered efficiency is determined by measurement of the usable heat output (determined through measurement of the flow rate and temperature change of water circulated through a heat exchanger external to the appliance) and the heat input (determined from the mass of dry fuel burned and its higher heating value). Delivered efficiency does not attempt to account for pipeline loss.

1.4 Products covered by this test method include both pressurized and non-pressurized heating appliances intended to be fired with wood or automatically fed biomass fuels. These products are hydronic heating appliances which the manufacturer specifies for outdoor or indoor installation. They are often connected to a heat exchanger by insulated pipes and normally include a pump to circulate heated liquid. They are used to heat structures such as homes, barns, and greenhouses and can heat domestic hot water, spas, or swimming pools.

1.4.1 Hydronic heating systems that incorporate a high mass heat storage system that is capable of storing the entire heat output of a standard fuel load are tested by the procedure specified in Annex A1. Systems that incorporate high mass heat storage capable of storing a portion of the output from a standard fuel load are tested by the procedure specified in Annex A2.

1.5 Distinguishing features of products covered by this standard include:

1.5.1 Manufacturers specify indoor or outdoor installation.

1.5.2 A firebox with an access door for hand loading of fuel or a hopper and automated feed system for delivery of particulate fuel such as wood pellets or solid biomass fuel to a burn pot or combustion chamber.

1.5.3 Typically a thermostatic control device that controls combustion air supply or fuel delivery, or both, to maintain the liquid in the appliance within a predetermined temperature range provided sufficient fuel is available in the firebox or hopper.

1.5.4 A chimney or vent that exhausts combustion products from the appliance.

1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.6.1 Exception—Metric units are used in 13.1, 13.4.3, Tables 4-6, and A1.11.6.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 04.12
Developed by Subcommittee: E06.54
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.1520/E2618-13R19
ICS Code: 91.140.10