Significance and Use
5.1 Cast iron Yankee dryers can be up to 6.7 m [22 ft] in diameter, 7.3 m [24 ft] long, and weigh 91 000 Kg [100 tons], or more (refer to ). Vessel thickness measurements are available from the paper/tissue machine operator. Cast iron is a brittle metal and has no specific yield point. Yankee dryers must maintain specific dimensional tolerances. When a pressurized Yankee or steam heated paper dryer (SHPD) remains stationary, it fills with condensate at a rapid rate. In an hour, a steam pressurized Yankee or SHPD can fill half way with condensate, doubling the weight on the frame, and the floor. Some Yankee owners have corporate requirements that a cast iron Yankee dryer remain stationary for 1/2 h, then rotation is required. Permission is required, if the Yankee is to remain stationary for more time. This issue should be discussed with the responsible person prior to the examination.
FIG. 1 Yankee Dryer Drum
5.2 Yankee dryers operate under a heated hood. The hood is in close proximity to the Yankee shell and allows only inches of clearance for the top half of the vessel.
5.3 Cast iron steam heated paper machine dryers are 2 m [6 ft] in diameter, or more, and may be 9 m [30 ft] long.
5.4 Grey cast iron experiences a continuing reduction in elastic modulus as it is stressed to increasing higher levels. It is prudent not to stress grey cast iron material beyond its operating stress level.
5.5 Flaws to be found are the same as those in any cast and machined product. Attempts have been made to characterize strength properties of cast irons in compact tension tests. In a TAPPI sponsored laboratory study, two out of three cast iron compact tension specimens experienced unplanned failures. From that experience it was cautioned that cracks initiated and grew faster than expected resulting in brittle fracture before the process could be halted. The failure of these two coupons demonstrated the rate in which cracks can grow in these materials and the material’s inability to stop a crack once it begins to grow. In each case, crack advance was extremely rapid and without warning. (See .)
Note 1: Alleveto, C., and Williams D., Acoustic Emission Evaluation of Yankee Dryer Shell Material, 1991 TAPPI Engineering Conference Proceedings, pages 475-480.
5.6 Maximum Examination Pressure—Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for cast iron vessels is set based on ASME (Section VIII) pressure calculations based on thickness, radius, and material strength values, and will not exceed 10 bar [160 psi] and 230 °C [450 °F] (Specification ). When vessels are pressurized, anomalies produce emission at pressures less than normal fill pressure. Historically, if there is damage in a cast iron pressure boundary, AE activity will begin at load/stress levels less than 50 % of operating. Defects as small as 3 mm [1/8 in.] have been found using AE, during steam pressurization to operating pressure.
5.7 Pressure increments should not exceed 0.35 bar [5 psi] per minute. If pressurization medium is to be steam, the Yankee should have been through the warm-up process.
5.8 Yankee dryers may receive a subsequent examination, if necessary, after the Yankee is rotated to remove any condensate present.
5.9 Pressurization Schedule—Pressurization should proceed at rates that allow achieving maximum examination pressure within a 30 minute period. During pressurization, pressure holds are not necessary; however, they may be useful for reasons other than measurement of AE. Pressure hold upon achieving maximum examination pressure may be up to 30 min.
5.10 Excess background noise may distort AE data or render the AE measurements useless. Users must be aware of the following common sources of background noise: (measurable flow noise); mechanical contact with the vessel by objects; electromagnetic interference (EMI) from cranes, and radio frequency interference (RFI) from nearby broadcasting facilities and from other sources; leaks at pipe or hose connections, or rain drops. This practice should not be used if background noise cannot be eliminated or controlled.
5.11 Other Non-destructive test methods may be used to evaluate the significance of AE sources. Magnetic particle, ultrasonic, and radiographic examinations have been used to establish circumferential position, depth, and dimensions of flaws that produce AE. Procedures for using other NDT nethods are beyond the scope of this practice.
1.1 This practice is no longer being updated but is being retained for historical value due to the procedures herein that are unique to the AE community.
1.2 This practice provides guidelines for carrying out acoustic emission (AE) examinations of Yankee and Steam Heated Paper Dryers (SHPD) of the type to make tissue, paper, and paperboard products.
1.3 This practice requires pressurization to levels used during normal operation. The pressurization medium may be high temperature steam, air, or gas. The dryer is also subjected to significant stresses during the heating up and cooling down periods of operation. Acoustic Emission data maybe collected during these time periods but this testing is beyond the scope of this document.
1.4 The AE measurements are used to detect, as well as, localize emission sources. Other methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) may be used to further evaluate the significance of acoustic emission sources.
1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.