Significance and Use
4.1 Application of this guide will provide users with information on how to use the various documents listed in Section 2 related to health and safety of metalworking and metal removal fluids.
4.2 Users of the documents listed in Section 2 may fall into several categories, such as producers of metalworking or metal removal fluids, suppliers of raw materials to those producers, users of metalworking or metal removal fluids, and other interested parties such as non-governmental organizations.
4.3 While all parties may wish to be generally familiar with all the documents listed in Section 2, producers and users may each want to focus on certain documents which are directly applicable to them:
4.4 Documents Applicable to Producers:
4.4.1 E1687 Test Method for Determining Carcinogenic Potential of Virgin Base Oils in Metalworking Fluids:
188.8.131.52 Test Method E1687 covers a microbiological test procedure based upon the Salmonella mutagenesis assay of Ames et al.7 (see also Maron et al.).8 It can be used as a screening technique to detect the presence of potential dermal carcinogens in virgin base oils used in the formulation of metalworking oils. Persons who use this test should be well versed in the conduct of the Ames test and conversant with the physical and chemical properties of petroleum products.
184.108.40.206 Producers of metalworking fluids and metal removal fluids should assure themselves that virgin base oils used in the formulation of neat metalworking and metal removal oils and soluble and semi-synthetic metal removal fluids have an acceptable mutagenicity index or mutagenic potency index.
4.4.2 E1302 Guide for Acute Animal Toxicity Testing of Water-Miscible Metal Removal Fluids:
220.127.116.11 Guide E1302 defines acute animal toxicity tests and sets forth references for procedures to assess the acute toxicity of water-miscible metal removal fluids as manufactured.
18.104.22.168 Application of Guide E1302 will provide information on the acute toxicity of water-miscible metal removal fluids and will assist the user in evaluating the potential health hazards of the fluid and developing appropriate work practices.
4.4.3 E3265 Guide for Evaluating Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluid Foaming Tendency:
22.214.171.124 Guide E3265 provides an overview of foaming tendency evaluation protocols and their appropriate use.
126.96.36.199 Test Methods D3519 and D3601 were withdrawn in 2013. Although each method had some utility, neither method reliably predicted in-use foaming tendency. Since Test Methods D3519 and D3601 were first adopted several more predictive test protocols have been developed. However, it is also common knowledge that no single protocol is universally suitable for predicting water-miscible metalworking fluid (MWF) foaming tendency.
188.8.131.52 There are no generally recognized reference standard fluids (either MWF or foam control additive). Instead, it is important to include a relevant reference sample in all testing.
184.108.40.206 Guide E3265 summarizes foam forming theory then provides a summary of commonly used foaming test protocols, including blender, shake, air sparge, and recirculation tests.
220.127.116.11 For each protocol, Guide E3265 explains the testing concept, apparatus needed, a summary of the test process, reporting, protocol variations, most appropriate applications and advantages, and least appropriate applications and limitations.
4.5 Documents Applicable to Users:
4.5.1 E1497 Practice for Selection and Safe Use of Water-Miscible and Straight Oil Metal Removal Fluids:
18.104.22.168 Practice E1497 sets forth guidelines for the safe use of metal removal fluids, additives, and biocides. This includes product selection, storage, dispensing, and maintenance.
22.214.171.124 Water-miscible metal removal fluids are typically used at high dilution and dilution rates vary widely. Additionally, there is potential for exposure to undiluted metal removal fluid as manufactured, as well as metal removal fluid additives and biocides.
126.96.36.199 Straight oils generally consist of a severely solvent-refined or hydro-treated petroleum oil, a synthetic oil, or other oils of animal or vegetable origin. Straight oils are not intended to be diluted with water prior to use. Additives are often included in straight oil formulations.
4.5.2 E1972 Practice for Minimizing Effects of Aerosols in the Wet Metal Removal Environment:
188.8.131.52 Practice E1972 sets forth guidelines for minimizing effects of aerosols in the wet metal removal environment.
184.108.40.206 Practice E1972 incorporates all practical means and mechanisms to minimize aerosol generation and to control effects of aerosols in the wet metal removal environment.
4.5.3 D7049 Test Method for Metal Removal Fluid Aerosol in Workplace Atmospheres:
220.127.116.11 Test Method D7049 covers a procedure for the determination of both total collected particulate matter and extractable mass metal removal fluid aerosol concentrations in a range from 0.05 mg/m3 to 5 mg/m3 in workplace atmospheres.
18.104.22.168 Test Method D7049 describes a standardized means of collecting worker exposure information that can be compared to existing exposure databases, using a test method that is also more specific to metal removal fluids.
4.5.4 E2144 Practice for Personal Sampling and Analysis of Endotoxin in Metalworking Fluid Aerosols in Workplace Atmospheres:
22.214.171.124 Practice E2144 covers quantitative methods for the personal sampling and determination of bacterial endotoxin concentrations in polydisperse metal removal fluid aerosols in workplace atmospheres. Users should have fundamental knowledge of microbiological techniques and endotoxin testing.
126.96.36.199 Endotoxins in metal removal fluid aerosols present potential respiratory hazards to workers who inhale them.
188.8.131.52 Users of Practice E2144 may obtain personal exposure data of endotoxin in metal removal fluid aerosols, either on a short-term or full-shift basis in workplace atmospheres.
184.108.40.206 Practice E2144 gives an estimate of the endotoxin concentration of the sampled atmosphere.
220.127.116.11 Practice E2144 seeks to minimize interlaboratory variation, but does not ensure uniformity of results.
18.104.22.168 It is anticipated that Practice E2144 will facilitate interlaboratory comparisons of airborne endotoxin data from metalworking fluid atmospheres, particularly metal removal fluid atmospheres, by providing a basis for endotoxin sampling, extraction, and analytical methods.
4.5.5 E2169 Practice for Selecting Antimicrobial Pesticides for Use in Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids:
22.214.171.124 Practice E2169 provides recommendations for selecting antimicrobial pesticides (microbiocides) for use in water-miscible metalworking fluids (MWF). It presents information regarding regulatory requirements, as well as technical factors including target microbes, efficacy, and chemical compatibility.
126.96.36.199 Practice E2169 is not an encyclopedic compilation of all the concepts and terminology used by chemists, microbiologits, toxicologists, formulators, plant engineers, and regulatory affairs specialists involved in antimicrobial pesticide selection and application. Instead, it provides a general understanding of the selection process and its supporting considerations.
4.5.6 E2657 Practice for Determination of Endotoxin Concentration in Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids:
188.8.131.52 Practice E2657 covers quantitative methods for the sampling and determination of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin concentrations in water-miscible metalworking fluids (MWF).
184.108.40.206 Users of Practice E2657 should be familiar with the handling of MWF.
220.127.116.11 Practice E2657 gives an estimate of the endotoxin concentration of the sampled MWF.
(1) Used onsite, Practice E2657 gives an indication of changes in Gram-negative bacterial contamination in the MWF.
(2) Practice E2657 does not replace Practice E2144.
18.104.22.168 Practice E2657 seeks to minimize interlaboratory variation but does not ensure uniformity of results.
22.214.171.124 Practice E2657 is intended to relate endotoxin concentration in MWF to health effects of inhaled endotoxin.
4.5.7 E2563 Test Method for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method:
126.96.36.199 Test Method E2563 covers the detection and enumeration of viable and culturable rapidly growing Mycobacteria (RGM), or non-tuberculosis Mycobacteria (NTM) in aqueous metalworking fluids (MWF) in the presence of high non-mycobacterial background population using standard microbiological culture methods.
188.8.131.52 NTM such as Mycobacterium immunogenum have been implicated as causative agents of the respiratory disease, extrinsic allergic aveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis; HP).
184.108.40.206 The measurement of viable and culturable mycobacterial densities combined with the total mycobacterial counts (including viable culturable (VC), viable non-culturable (VNC), and non-viable (NV) counts) is usually the first step in establishing any possible relationship between Mycobacteria and occupational health concerns (for example, HP).
220.127.116.11 Test Method E2563 can be employed in survey studies to characterize the viable culturable mycobacterial population densities of metal working fluid field samples.
18.104.22.168 Test Method E2563 is also applicable for establishing the mycobacterial resistance of metalworking fluid formulations by determining mycobacterium survival by means of plate count technique.
22.214.171.124 Test Method E2563 can be used to evaluate the relative efficacy of microbicides against Mycobacteria in metalworking fluids.
4.5.8 E2564 Test Method for Enumeration of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids by Direct Microscopic Counting (DMC) Method:
126.96.36.199 Test Method E2564 describes a direct microscopic counting method (DMC) for the enumeration of the acid-fast stained mycobacteria population in metalworking fluids. It can be used to detect levels of total mycobacteria population, including culturable as well as non-culturable (possibly dead or moribund) bacterial cells. This test method is recommended for all water-based metalworking fluids.
188.8.131.52 As noted in 184.108.40.206, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria are common members of the indigenous MWF bacterial population that have been implicated as agents of HP.
220.127.116.11 Test Method E2564 provides a quantitative assessment of the total numbers of acid-fast bacilli using acid-fast staining to selectively identify mycobacteria from other bacteria, followed by enumeration or direct microscopic counting of a known volume over a known area.
18.104.22.168 Although other microbes—particularly the Actinomycetes—also stain acid fast, they are differentiated from the mycobacteria because of their morphology and size. Non-mycobacteria, acid-fast microbes are 50 to 100 times larger than mycobacteria.
22.214.171.124 Test Method E2564 provides quantitative information on the total (culturable and non-culturable viable, and non-viable) mycobacteria populations. The results are expressed quantitatively as mycobacteria per mL of metalworking fluid sample.
126.96.36.199 The DMC method using the acid-fast staining technique is a semi-quantitative method with a relatively fast turnaround time.
188.8.131.52 The DMC method can also be employed in field survey studies to characterize the changes in total mycobacteria densities of metalworking fluid systems over a long period of time.
184.108.40.206 The sensitivity detection limit of the DMC method depends on the MF and the sample volume (direct or centrifuged, etc.) examined.
4.5.9 E2694 Test Method for Measurement of Adenosine Triphosphate in Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids:
220.127.116.11 Test Method E2694 provides a protocol for capturing, extracting, and quantifying the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content associated with microorganisms found in MWF.
18.104.22.168 Test Method E2694 measures the concentration of ATP present in the sample. ATP is a constituent of all living cells, including bacteria and fungi. Consequently, the presence of ATP is an indicator of total microbial contamination in metalworking fluids. ATP is not associated with matter of non-biological origin.
22.214.171.124 The ATP test provides rapid test results that reflect the total bioburden in the sample. It thereby reduces the delay between test initiation and data capture, from the 36 h to 48 h (or longer) required for culturable colonies to become visible, to approximately 5 min.
126.96.36.199 Although ATP data generally covary with culture data in MWF,9 different factors affect ATP concentration than those that affect culturability.
188.8.131.52 Because ATP is present in all living organisms, Test Method E2694 can be used as a first-screen to determine whether additional microbiological testing is needed.
184.108.40.206 Although there is no consensus on the exact relationship between bulk MWF bioburdens and bioaerosol concentrations, it is generally recognized that higher bulk fluid bioburdens imply higher bioaerosol concentrations.
4.5.10 E2693 Practice for Prevention of Dermatitis in the Wet Metal Removal Fluid Environment:
220.127.116.11 Practice E2693 sets forth guidelines for reducing dermatitis caused by exposure to the wet metal removal environment. The scope of this practice does not include exposure to chemicals that enter the body through intact skin (cutaneous route), which has the potential to cause other toxic effects.
18.104.22.168 Practice E2693 incorporates means and mechanisms to reduce dermal exposure to the wet metal removal environment and to control factors in the wet metal removal environment that have the potential to cause dermatitis.
22.214.171.124 Practice E2693 focuses on employee exposure to the skin via contact and exposure to metal removal fluid (MRF).
4.6 Documents Applicable to All:
4.6.1 E2889 Practice for Control of Respiratory Hazards in the Metal Removal Fluid Environment:
126.96.36.199 Practice E2889 sets forth guidelines to control respiratory hazards in the metal removal fluid environment.
188.8.131.52 Practice E2889 adopts a systems management approach to control of respiratory hazards in the metal removal fluid environment. Elements include management practices, product selection, methods for mist minimization, machine tool design and maintenance, bioaerosol control, fluid testing and maintenance, personal protective equipment, occupational exposure guidelines, aerosol monitoring and testing methods, medical monitoring and management, and communication and training.
184.108.40.206 Practice E2889 focuses on employee exposure via inhalation of metal removal fluids and associated airborne agents. It does not include prevention of dermatitis, which is the subject of Practice E2693.
4.6.2 Management of the Metal Removal Fluid Environment – A Guide to the Safe and Efficient Use of Metal Removal Fluids:
220.127.116.11 This guide collects best practices in the management of metal removal fluid systems and provides an educational tool to assist users in taking control of the MRF systems in their workplaces.
18.104.22.168 For many industrial organizations, focusing on the systematic management of MRF systems has proven effective in controlling exposures in the wet metal removal/machining environment. The recommendations are distilled from the experiences of Organization Resources Counselors member companies and represent best practice.
4.6.3 Criteria for a Recommended Standard – Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids:
22.214.171.124 This criteria document reviews available information about the adverse health effects associated with occupational exposure to metalworking fluids and metalworking fluid aerosols.
126.96.36.199 Criteria documents provide the scientific basis for new occupational safety and health standards and contain a critical review of the scientific and technical information available on the prevalence of hazards, the existence of safety and health risks, and the adequacy of control methods.
4.6.4 Metalworking Fluids – Safety and Health Best Practices Manual:
188.8.131.52 This document reviews best practices as documented by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, including engineering and work practice controls, establishing a metalworking fluid management program, instituting an exposure monitoring program, medical monitoring of exposed employees, and training.
184.108.40.206 This manual is not a standard or regulation and creates no new legal obligations. It is advisory in nature, informational in content, and is intended to assist employers in providing a safe and healthful workplace for workers exposed to metalworking fluids through effective prevention programs adapted to the needs and resources of each place of employment.
1.1 This guide covers information on how to use documents related to health and safety of metalworking and metal removal fluids. As such, this guide will provide the user with sufficient background information to effectively use the documents listed in Section 2. Documents referenced in this guide are grouped as applicable to producers, to users or to all.
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.3 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.