Significance and Use
4.1 The design and operation of a self-contained irradiator should ensure that reproducible absorbed doses are obtained when the same irradiation parameters are used. Dosimetry is performed to determine the relationship between the irradiation parameters and the absorbed dose.
4.1.1 For most applications, the absorbed dose is expressed as absorbed dose to water (see ISO/ASTM Practice 51261). For conversion of absorbed dose to water to that to other materials, for example, silicon, see Annex A1 of ISO/ASTM Practice 51261.
4.2 Self-contained dry-storage gamma irradiators contain properly shielded radioactive sources, namely 137Cs or 60Co, that emit ionizing electromagnetic radiation (gamma radiation). These irradiators have an enclosed, accessible irradiator sample chamber connected with a sample positioning system, for example, irradiator drawer, rotor, or irradiator turntable, as part of the irradiation device.
4.3 Self-contained dry-storage gamma irradiators can be used for many radiation processing applications, including the calibration irradiation of dosimeters; studies of dosimeter influence quantities; radiation effects studies, and irradiation of materials or biological samples for process compatibility studies; batch irradiations of microbiological, botanical, or in-vitro samples; irradiation of small animals; radiation “hardness” testing of electronics components and other materials; and batch radiation processing of containers of samples.
NOTE 1—Self-contained dry-storage gamma irradiators contain a sealed radiation source, or an array of sealed radiation sources securely held in a dry container constructed of solid materials. The sealed radiation sources are shielded at all times, and human access to the chamber undergoing irradiation is not physically possible due to the irradiator’s design configuration (see ANSI/HPS N43.7).
NOTE 2—For reference–standard dosimetry, the absorbed dose and absorbed-dose rate can be expressed in water or other material which has similar radiation absorption properties to that of the samples or dosimeters being irradiated. In some cases, the reference-standard dosimetry may be performed using ionization chambers, and may be calibrated in terms of exposure (C kg–1), or absorbed dose to air, water or tissue (Gy). Measurements performed in terms of exposure apply to ionization in air, and care should be taken to apply that measurement to the sample being irradiated.
1.1 This practice outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed with self-contained dry-storage gamma irradiators. For irradiators used for routine processing, procedures are given to ensure that product processed will receive absorbed doses within prescribed limits.
1.2 This practice covers dosimetry in the use of dry-storage gamma irradiators, namely self-contained dry-storage 137Cs or 60Co irradiators (shielded freestanding irradiators). It does not cover underwater pool sources, panoramic gamma sources, nor does it cover self-contained bremsstrahlung X-ray units.
1.3 The absorbed-dose range for the use of the dry-storage self-contained gamma irradiators covered by this practice is typically 1 to 105 Gy, depending on the application. The absorbed-dose rate range typically is from 10–2 to 103 Gy/min.
1.4 For irradiators supplied for specific applications, specific ISO/ASTM or ASTM practices and guides provide dosimetric procedures for the application. For procedures specific to dosimetry in blood irradiation, see ISO/ASTM Practice 51939. For procedures specific to dosimetry in radiation research on food and agricultural products, see ISO/ASTM Practice 51900. For procedures specific to radiation hardness testing, see ASTM Practice E1249. For procedures specific to the dosimetry in the irradiation of insects for sterile release programs, see ISO/ASTM Guide 51940. In those cases covered by ISO/ASTM 51939, 51900, 51940, or ASTM E1249, those standards take precedence.
1.5 This document is one of a set of standards that provides recommendations for properly implementing and utilizing dosimetry in radiation processing. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ASTM E2628, “Practice for Dosimetry in Radiation Processing”.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.