Significance and Use
4.1 The AU method should be considered for vessels that are proven to be free of major flaws or discontinuities as determined by conventional techniques. The AU method may be used for detecting major flaws if other methods are deemed impractical. It is important to use methods such as immersion pulse-echo ultrasonics (Practice ) and acoustic emission (Practice ) to ascertain the presence of major flaws before proceeding with AU.
4.2 The AU method is intended almost exclusively for materials characterization by assessing the collective effects of dispersed defects and subcritical flaw populations. These are material aberrations that influence AU measurements and also underlie mechanical property variations, dynamic load response, and impact and fracture resistance.
4.3 The AU method can be used to evaluate laminate quality using access to only one surface, the usual constraint imposed by closed pressure vessels. For best results, the AU probes must be fixtured to maintain the probe orientation at normal incidence to the curved surface of the vessel. Given these constraints, this practice describes a procedure for automated AU scanning using water squirters to assess the serviceability and reliability of filament-wound pressure vessels.
1.1 This practice covers a procedure for acousto-ultrasonic (AU) assessment of filament-wound pressure vessels. Guidelines are given for the detection of defect states and flaw populations that arise during materials processing or manufacturing or upon exposure to aggressive service environments. Although this practice describes an automated scanning mode, similar results can be obtained with a manual scanning mode.
1.2 This procedure recommends technical details and rules for the reliable and reproducible AU detection of defect states and flaw populations. The AU procedure described herein can be a basis for assessing the serviceability of filament-wound pressure vessels.
1.3 The objective of the AU method is primarily the assessment of defect states and diffuse flaw populations that influence the mechanical strength and ultimate reliability of filament-wound pressure vessels. The AU approach and probe configuration are designed specifically to determine composite properties in lateral rather than through-the-thickness directions.
1.4 The AU method is not for flaw detection in the conventional sense. The AU method is most useful for materials characterization, as explained in Guide , which gives the rationale and basic technology for the AU method. Flaws and discontinuities such as large voids, disbonds, or extended lack of contact of interfaces can be found by other nondestructive examination (NDE) methods such as immersion pulse-echo ultrasonics.
1.5 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this practice.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.