Significance and Use
4.1 This practice is applicable to the use of calorimetric dosimetry systems for the measurement of absorbed dose in electron beams, the qualification of electron irradiation facilities, periodic checks of operating parameters of electron irradiation facilities, and calibration of other dosimetry systems in electron beams. Calorimetric dosimetry systems are most suitable for dose measurement at electron irradiation facilities utilizing conveyor systems for transport of product during irradiation.
Note 1: For additional information on calorimetric dosimetry system operation and use, see ICRU Report 80. For additional information on the use of dosimetry in electron accelerator facilities, see ISO/ASTM (. ), and ICRU Reports 34 and 35, and Refs
4.2 The calorimetric dosimetry systems described in this practice are not primary standard dosimetry systems. The calorimeters are classified as Type II dosimeters (ISO/ASTM ). They might be used as internal standards at an electron beam irradiation facility, including being used as transfer standard dosimetry systems for calibration of other dosimetry systems, or they might be used as routine dosimeters. The calorimetric dosimetry systems are calibrated by comparison with transfer standard dosimeters.
4.3 The dose measurement is based on the measurement of the temperature rise (dosimeter response) in an absorber (calorimetric body) irradiated by an electron beam. Different absorbing materials are used, but the response is usually defined in terms of dose to water.
Note 2: The calorimetric bodies of the calorimeters described in this practice are made from low atomic number materials. The electron fluences within these calorimetric bodies are almost independent of energy when irradiated with electron beams of 1.5 MeV or higher, and the mass collision stopping powers are approximately the same for these materials.
4.4 The absorbed dose in other materials irradiated under equivalent conditions can be calculated. Procedures for making such calculations are given in ASTM Practices and , and Ref (. )
4.4.1 Calorimeters for use at industrial electron accelerators have been constructed using graphite, polystyrene or a Petri dish filled with water as the calorimetric body (. The thickness of the calorimetric body should be less than the range of the incident electrons. )
4.4.2 Polymeric materials other than polystyrene might also be used for calorimetric measurements. Polystyrene is used because it is known to be resistant to radiation ( and because almost no exo- or endothermic reactions take place )(. )
1.1 This practice covers the preparation and use of semi-adiabatic calorimetric dosimetry systems for measurement of absorbed dose and for calibration of routine dosimetry systems when irradiated with electrons for radiation processing applications. The calorimeters are either transported by a conveyor past a scanned electron beam or are stationary in a broadened beam.
1.2 This document is one of a set of standards that provides recommendations for properly implementing dosimetry in radiation processing, and describes a means of achieving compliance with the requirements of ISO/ASTM Practice for a calorimetric dosimetry system. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO/ASTM Practice .
1.3 The calorimeters described in this practice are classified as Type II dosimeters on the basis of the complex effect of influence quantities. See ISO/ASTM Practice .
1.4 This practice applies to electron beams in the energy range from 1.5 to 12 MeV.
1.5 The absorbed dose range depends on the calorimetric absorbing material and the irradiation and measurement conditions. Minimum dose is approximately 100 Gy and maximum dose is approximately 50 kGy.
1.6 The average absorbed-dose rate range shall generally be greater than 10 Gy·s-1.
1.7 The temperature range for use of these calorimetric dosimetry systems depends on the thermal resistance of the calorimetric materials, on the calibration range of the temperature sensor, and on the sensitivity of the measurement device.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.