Standard Active Last Updated: Jul 30, 2018
ASTM E1494-18

Standard Practice for Testing Physical Properties of Friable Surfacing Materials

Significance and Use

4.1 The purpose of this practice is to provide test methods and performance criteria involving encapsulants for surfacing material on an asbestos abatement project in accordance with Practice E1368, including the application of encapsulants to the surfacing material as an abatement measure and the removal of existing encapsulated surfacing material.

4.1.1 Abatement projects involving application of encapsulants require coverage, penetration, and cohesion/adhesion tests to determine encapsulation requirements during project design, on test patches, and at conclusion of the project to determine completeness of abatement.

4.1.2 Removal projects requires penetration tests during project design on test patches to determine thicknesses of encapsulated and un-encapsulated surfacing material.

4.2 The test methods and performance criteria described in this practice may also be used during a Project Design Survey in accordance with Practice E2356 to provide information for preparing the plans and specifications for applying or removing the encapsulated surfacing material.

4.3 Asbestos-containing surfacing materials installed in buildings may include fireproofing, acoustical and decorative plaster, and soundproofing. Properties not directly addressed in this practice may be important and appropriate test methods should be considered. See Test Methods E84, E119, and E605, and 1-GP-205M2003.

4.4 The test methods described in this practice are designed to (1) determine the depth of penetration, or lack thereof, of the encapsulant into the matrix of the surfacing material, (2) determine the coverage of the encapsulant on the surfacing material, and (3) to determine the adhesive and cohesive properties of the encapsulated surfacing material.

4.5 Compliance with the acceptance criteria in this practice and with referenced specifications does not guarantee that the abatement project will pass the visual inspection for completeness of clean-up in Practice E1368, or that the project will pass final air sampling for clearance, as other factors besides encapsulant performance affect these outcomes.


1.1 This practice covers encapsulants intended to reduce or eliminate the release of asbestos fibers from a matrix of friable spray- or trowel-applied asbestos-containing surfacing material.

1.2 This practice includes a series of determinations to be conducted in the field on asbestos abatement projects for which encapsulation is being considered or has been performed.

1.3 This practice is to be used to determine the appropriateness of encapsulation as an abatement measure in accordance with Practice E1368, as part of a Project Design Survey in accordance with Practice E2356, and to demonstrate completeness of abatement in accordance with Practice E1368. Performance of the encapsulated surfacing material for other purposes is not within the scope of this practice. Use Test Methods E84, E119, and E605 to determine other properties of the material.

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.6 Warning—Asbestos fibers are acknowledged carcinogens. Breathing asbestos fibers can result in disease of the lungs including asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.2 Precautions in this standard practice should be taken to avoid creating and breathing airborne particles from materials known or suspected to contain asbestos. See 2.3 for regulatory requirements addressing asbestos.

1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 11.07
Developed by Subcommittee: D22.07
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.1520/E1494-18
ICS Code: 91.100.40