Significance and Use
4.1 Leakage of gas or liquid from a pressurized system, whether through a crack, orifice, seal break, or other opening, may involve turbulent or cavitational flow, which generates acoustic energy in both the external atmosphere and the system pressure boundary. Acoustic energy transmitted through the pressure boundary can be detected at a distance by using a suitable acoustic emission sensor.
4.2 With proper selection of frequency passband, sensitivity to leak signals can be maximized by eliminating background noise. At low frequencies, generally below 100 kHz, it is possible for a leak to excite mechanical resonances within the structure that may enhance the acoustic signals used to detect leakage.
4.3 This practice is not intended to provide a quantitative measure of leak rates.
1.1 This practice describes a passive method for detecting and locating the steady state source of gas and liquid leaking out of a pressurized system. The method employs surface-mounted acoustic emission sensors (for non-contact sensors see Test Method ), or sensors attached to the system via acoustic waveguides (for additional information, see Terminology ), and may be used for continuous in-service monitoring and hydrotest monitoring of piping and pressure vessel systems. High sensitivities may be achieved, although the values obtainable depend on sensor spacing, background noise level, system pressure, and type of leak.
1.2 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standards.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.