Standard Active Last Updated: Jan 13, 2022
ASTM E915-21

Standard Practice for Verifying the Alignment of X-Ray Diffraction Instruments for Residual Stress Measurement

Standard Practice for Verifying the Alignment of X-Ray Diffraction Instruments for Residual Stress Measurement
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Significance and Use

4.1 This practice provides a means of verifying the alignment of an X-ray diffraction instrument so as to quantify and minimize systematic experimental error in residual stress measurements. This practice is suitable for application to conventional X-ray diffraction instruments or to X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement instruments of either the diverging or parallel beam types3,4

4.2 Application of this practice requires the use of a flat stress-free specimen that diffracts X-rays within the angular range of the diffraction peak to be used for subsequent residual stress measurements. The specimen shall have sufficiently small coherent domains or grains, be quasi-homogeneous, quasi-isotropic, and be of sufficient thickness such that incident X-rays interact with and diffract from an adequate number of individual coherent domains or grains such that a near-random grain orientation distribution is sampled. The crystals shall provide intense diffraction at all tilt angles ψ that will be employed.

Note 1: A major bias in crystal structure orientation is undesirable, but complete freedom from preferred orientation in the stress-free specimen is not critical in the application of the technique.


1.1 This practice describes the procedure for verifying the alignment of X-ray diffraction instruments used for residual stress measurements.

1.2 This practice further describes the use of iron powder for fabrication of a stress-free test specimen to be used to quantify the systematic error that can occur in residual stress measurement of ferritic or martensitic steels. This practice is easily adapted to other alloys and ceramics by the use of a powder having a similar diffraction angle to the material to be measured.

1.3 This practice is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments that measure diffracted X-rays from the crystal structure of a polycrystalline specimen. It is applicable to the acceptable multiple exposure techniques of residual stress measurement as defined in Test Method E2860. Through measurement of a high-angle back-reflection set of planes, these techniques are used to derive the interatomic spacing (d-spacing) and the crystallographic strain, and then calculate residual stress in which the θ, 2θ, and ψ rotation axes can be made to coincide (see Fig. 1).

FIG. 1 X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Measurement Geometry and Angles Defined

X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Measurement Geometry and Angles DefinedX-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Measurement Geometry and Angles Defined

1.4 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 03.01
Developed by Subcommittee: E28.13
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.1520/E0915-21
ICS Code: 19.100