Significance and Use
4.1 Because of the loss of life in fires from inhalation of fire gases, much attention has been focused on the analyses of these species. Analysis has involved several new or modified methods, since common analytical techniques have often proven to be inappropriate for the combinations of various gases and low concentrations existing in fire gas mixtures.
4.2 In the measurement of fire gases, it is imperative to use procedures that are both reliable and appropriate to the unique atmosphere of a given fire environment. To maximize the reliability of test results, it is essential to establish the following:
4.2.1 That gaseous samples are representative of the compositions existing at the point of sampling,
4.2.2 That transfer and pretreatment of samples occur without loss, or with known efficiency, and
4.2.3 That data provided by the analytical instruments are accurate for the compositions and concentrations at the point of sampling.
4.3 This document includes a comprehensive survey that will permit an individual, technically skilled and practiced in the study of analytical chemistry, to select a suitable technique from among the alternatives. It will not provide enough information for the setup and use of a procedure (this information is available in the references).
4.4 Data generated by the use of techniques cited in this document should not be used to rank materials for regulatory purposes.
1.1 Analytical methods for the measurement of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen halides, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, and hydrocarbons are described, along with sampling considerations. Many of these gases may be present in any fire environment. Several analytical techniques are described for each gaseous species, together with advantages and disadvantages of each. The test environment, sampling constraints, analytical range, and accuracy often dictate use of one analytical method over another.
1.2 These techniques have been used to measure gases under fire test conditions (laboratory, small scale, or full scale). With proper sampling considerations, any of these methods could be used for measurement in most fire environments.
1.3 This document is intended to be a guide for investigators and for subcommittee use in developing standard test methods. A single analytical technique has not been recommended for any chemical species unless that technique is the only one available.
1.4 The techniques described herein can be used to determine the concentration of a specific gas in the total sample collected for analysis. These techniques do not determine the total amount of fire gases that would be generated by a specimen during a fire test.
1.5 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assembles to heat and flame under controlled conditions but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.