Standard Active Last Updated: Aug 09, 2022
ASTM E526-22

Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates By Radioactivation of Titanium

Significance and Use

5.1 Refer to Guide E844 for the selection, irradiation, and quality control of neutron dosimeters.

5.2 Refer to Practice E261 for a general discussion of the determination of fast-neutron fluence rate with threshold detectors.

5.3 Titanium has good physical strength, is easily fabricated, has excellent corrosion resistance, has a melting temperature of 1668 °C, and can be obtained with satisfactory purity.

5.4 46Sc has a half-life of 83.787 (16)4 days (2). The 46Sc decay emits a 0.889271 (2) MeV gamma 99.98374 (35) % of the time and a second gamma with an energy of 1.120537 (3) MeV 99.97 (2) % of the time.

5.5 The recommended “representative isotopic abundances” for natural titanium (3) are:

8.25 (3) % 46Ti

7.44 (2) % 47Ti

73.72 (2) % 48Ti

5.41 (2) % 49Ti

5.18 (2) % 50Ti

5.6 The radioactive products of the neutron reactions 47Ti(n,p)47Sc (τ1/2 = 3.3485 (9) d) (2) and 48Ti(n,p)48Sc (τ1/2 = 43.67 h), (3) might interfere with the analysis of 46Sc.

5.7 Contaminant activities (for example, 65Zn and 182Ta) might interfere with the analysis of 46Sc. See 7.1.2 and 7.1.3 for more details on the 182Ta and 65Zn interference.

5.8 46Ti and 46Sc have cross sections for thermal neutrons of 0.59 ± 0.18 and 8.0 ± 1.0 barns, respectively (4); therefore, when an irradiation exceeds a thermal-neutron fluence greater than about 2 × 1021 cm–2, provisions should be made to either use a thermal-neutron shield to prevent burn-up of 46Sc or measure the thermal-neutron fluence rate and calculate the burn-up.

5.9 Fig. 1 shows a plot of the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File, IRDFF-II cross section (5) versus neutron energy for the fast-neutron reactions of titanium which produce 46Sc (that is, natTi(n,X)46Sc). Included in the plot is the 46Ti(n,p) reaction and the 47Ti(n,np:d) contributions to the 46Sc production, normalized per natTi atom with the individual isotopic contributions weighted using the natural abundances (3). This figure is for illustrative purposes only and should be used to indicate the range of response of the natTi(n,X)46Sc reaction. Refer to Guide E1018 for descriptions of recommended tabulated dosimetry cross sections. Fig. 2 compares the cross section for the 46Ti(n,p)46Sc reaction to the current experimental database (6, 7). Fig. 3 compares the cross section for the 47Ti(n,np:d) reaction to the current experimental database (6, 7).

FIG. 1 SAND-II 640-Group Histogram Representation of the natTi(n,X)46Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Elemental Ti Atom Using Natural Abundance Data), Represented By the Sum of the natTi(n,p)46Sc, natTi(n,np)46Sc, and natTi(n,d)46Sc Cross Section Components

SAND-II 640-Group Histogram Representation of the Ti(n,X)Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Elemental Ti Atom Using Natural Abundance Data), Represented By the Sum of the Ti(n,p)Sc, Ti(n,np)Sc, and Ti(n,d)Sc Cross Section ComponentsSAND-II 640-Group Histogram Representation of the Ti(n,X)Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Elemental Ti Atom Using Natural Abundance Data), Represented By the Sum of the Ti(n,p)Sc, Ti(n,np)Sc, and Ti(n,d)Sc Cross Section Components

FIG. 2 46Ti(n,p)46Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Isotopic 46Ti Atom), from IRDFF-II, with EXFOR Experimental Data

Ti(n,p)Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Isotopic Ti Atom), from IRDFF-II, with EXFOR Experimental DataTi(n,p)Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Isotopic Ti Atom), from IRDFF-II, with EXFOR Experimental Data

FIG. 3 47Ti(n,np:d)46Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Isotopic 47Ti Atom), from IRDFF-II, with EXFOR Experimental Data

Ti(n,np:d)Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Isotopic Ti Atom), from IRDFF-II, with EXFOR Experimental DataTi(n,np:d)Sc Cross Section (Normalized per Isotopic Ti Atom), from IRDFF-II, with EXFOR Experimental Data

Scope

1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction natTi(n,X)46Sc. The “X” designation represents any combination of light particles associated with the production of the residual 46Sc product. Within the applicable neutron energy range for fission reactor applications, this reaction is a properly normalized combination of three different reaction channels: 46Ti(n,p)46Sc; 47Ti(n, np)46Sc; and 47Ti(n,d)46Sc.

Note 1: The 47Ti(n,np)46Sc reaction, ENDF-6 format file/reaction identifier MF=3, MT=28, is distinguished from the 47Ti(n,d)46Sc reaction, ENDF-6 format file/reaction identifier MF=3/MT=104, even though it leads to the same residual product (1).2 The combined reaction, in the IRDFF-II library, has the file/reaction identifier MF=10/MT=5.

Note 2: The cross section for the combined 47Ti(n,np:d) reaction is relatively small for energies less than 12 MeV and, in fission reactor spectra, the production of the residual 46Sc is not easily distinguished from that due to the 46Ti(n,p) reaction.

1.2 The reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 4.4 MeV and for irradiation times, under uniform power, up to about 250 days (for longer irradiations, or for varying power levels, see Practice E261).

1.3 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 109 cm–2·s–1 can be determined. However, in the presence of a high thermal-neutron fluence rate, 46Sc depletion should be investigated.

1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E261.

1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Details
Book of Standards Volume: 12.02
Developed by Subcommittee: E10.05
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.1520/E0526-22
ICS Code: 17.240; 27.120.30