Standard Active Last Updated: Oct 12, 2022
ASTM E431-96(2022)

Standard Guide to Interpretation of Radiographs of Semiconductors and Related Devices

Significance and Use

4.1 Illustrations provided in this guide are intended for use as references to aid in interpreting film or nonfilm images resulting from x-ray examinations (see Table 1) to ascertain quality of assembly and workmanship.

4.2 Required attributes of the design features or other construction details are not provided but are to be established as mutually agreed upon by manufacturers and users of these devices. Many devices share common assembly features; thus, these interpretations can be used for components not illustrated.


1.1 This guide provides illustrations of radiographs of semiconductors and related devices. Low powered transistors (through the TO-11 case configuration), diodes, low-power rectifiers, power devices, and integrated circuits are illustrated with common assembly features. Particular areas of construction are featured for these devices detailing critical points of design or assembly.

1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.3 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 03.03
Developed by Subcommittee: E07.02
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/E0431-96R22
ICS Code: 31.080.01