Standard Historical Last Updated: Aug 16, 2017
ASTM E431-96

Standard Guide to Interpretation of Radiographs of Semiconductors and Related Devices


1.1 This guide provides illustrations of radiographs of semiconductors and related devices. Low powered transistors (through the TO-11 case configuration), diodes, low-power rectifiers, power devices, and integrated circuits are illustrated with common assembly features. Particular areas of construction are featured for these devices detailing critical points of design or assembly.

1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Contact Sales
Reprints and Permissions
Reprints and copyright permissions can be requested through the
Copyright Clearance Center
Book of Standards Volume: 03.03
Developed by Subcommittee: E07.02
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/E0431-96