Standard Active Last Updated: Aug 23, 2023 Track Document
ASTM E422-22

Standard Test Method for Measuring Net Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter

Standard Test Method for Measuring Net Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter E0422-22 ASTM|E0422-22|en-US Standard Test Method for Measuring Net Heat Flux Using a Water-Cooled Calorimeter Standard new BOS Vol. 15.03 Committee E21
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Significance and Use

5.1 The purpose of this test method is to measure the net heat flux to a water-cooled surface for purposes of calibration of the thermal environment into which test specimens are placed for evaluation. The measured net heat flux is one of the important parameters for correlating the behavior of materials. If the calorimeter and holder size, shape, and surface finish are identical to that of the test specimen, the measured net heat flux to the calorimeter is presumed to be the same as that to the sample's heated surface. If the calorimeter configuration (holder size, shape, finish, etc.) is not identical to that of the test specimen, then the measurement results may need to be modified to account for those differences. See Appendix X1.

5.2 The water-cooled calorimeter is one of several calorimeter concepts used to measure net heat flux. The prime drawback is its long response time, that is, the time required to achieve steady-state operation. To calculate energy added to the coolant water, accurate measurements of the rise in coolant temperature are needed, all energy losses should be minimized, and steady-state conditions must exist both in the thermal environment and fluid flow of the calorimeter.

5.3 Regardless of the source of energy input to the water-cooled calorimeter surface (radiative, convective, or combinations thereof) the measurement is averaged over the surface-active area of the calorimeter. If the water-cooled calorimeter is used to measure only radiative flux or combined convective-radiative net heat flux rates, then the surface reflectivity of the calorimeter shall be measured over the wavelength region of interest (depending on the source of radiant energy). If nonuniformities exist in the gas stream, a large surface area water-cooled calorimeter would tend to smooth or average any variations. Consequently, it is advisable that the size of the calorimeter be limited to relatively small surface areas and applied to where the net heat flux is uniform. Where large samples are tested, it is recommended that a number of smaller diameter water-cooled calorimeters be used (rather than one large unit). These shall be located across the heated surface such that a net heat flux distribution can be described. With this, a more detailed net heat flux measurement can be applied to the specimen test and more information can be deduced from the test.


1.1 This test method covers the measurement of a steady net heat flux to a given water-cooled surface by means of a system energy balance.

1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 15.03
Developed by Subcommittee: E21.08
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.1520/E0422-22
ICS Code: 17.200.10