Standard Active Last Updated: May 18, 2020 Track Document
ASTM E313-20

Standard Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates

Standard Practice for Calculating Yellowness and Whiteness Indices from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates
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Significance and Use

5.1 This practice should be used only to compare specimens of the same material and same general appearance. For example, a series of specimens to be compared should have generally similar gloss, texture, and (if not opaque) thickness, and translucency.

5.2 For yellowness measurement, this practice is limited to specimens having dominant wavelength in the range 570 to 580 nm, or Munsell hue approximately 2.5GY to 2.5Y. For whiteness measurement, this practice is limited to specimens having Munsell value greater than 8.3 (CIE Y greater than 65) and Munsell chroma no greater than 0.5 for B hues, 0.8 for Y hues, and 0.3 for all other hues (see 3.3.1).

5.3 The combination of measurement and calculation leading to indices of yellowness or whiteness is a psychophysical process, that is, the procedures specified are designed to provide numbers correlating with visual estimates made under specified typical observing conditions. Because visual observing conditions can vary widely, users should compare calculated indices with visual estimates to ensure applicability. Some standards addressing the visual estimation of color and color difference are Practices D1535, D1729, E1360, and E1541, and Guide E1499.

5.4 This practice does not cover the preparation of specimens, a procedure that may affect significantly the quantities measured. In general, specimens should be prepared and presented for measurement in the manner that is standard for the test being performed. Select enough specimens or specimen areas to provide an average result that is representative of each sample to be tested. See Practice E1345.


1.1 This practice provides numbers that correlate with visual ratings of yellowness or whiteness of white and near-white or colorless object-color specimens, viewed in daylight by an observer with normal color vision. White textiles, paints, and plastics are a few of the materials that can be described by the indices of yellowness or whiteness calculated by this practice.

1.2 For a complete analysis of object colors, by a specified observer and under a specified illuminant, use of three parameters is required. For near-white specimens, however, it is often useful to calculate single-number scales of yellowness or whiteness. This practice provides recommended equations for such scales and discusses their derivations and uses, and limits to their applicability (see also Ref (1)2).

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 06.01
Developed by Subcommittee: E12.04
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/E0313-20
ICS Code: 17.180.20