Standard Active Last Updated: Jul 22, 2022
ASTM E215-22

Standard Practice for Standardizing Equipment and Electromagnetic Examination of Seamless Aluminum-Alloy Tube

Significance and Use

4.1 The examination is performed by passing the tube lengthwise through or near an eddy current sensor energized with alternating current of one or more frequencies. The electrical impedance of the eddy current sensor is modified by the proximity of the tube. The extent of this modification is determined by the distance between the eddy current sensor and the tube, the dimensions, and electrical conductivity of the tube. The presence of metallurgical or mechanical discontinuities in the tube will alter the apparent impedance of the eddy current sensor. During passage of the tube, the changes in eddy current sensor characteristics caused by localized differences in the tube produce electrical signals which are amplified and modified to actuate either an audio or visual signaling device or a mechanical marker to indicate the position of discontinuities in the tube length. Signals can be produced by discontinuities located either on the external or internal surface of the tube or by discontinuities totally contained within the tube wall.

4.2 The depth of penetration of eddy currents in the tube wall is influenced by the conductivity (alloy) of the material being examined and the excitation frequency employed. As defined by the standard depth of penetration equation, the eddy current penetration depth is inversely related to conductivity and excitation frequency (Note 2). Beyond one standard depth of penetration (SDP), the capacity to detect discontinuities by eddy currents is reduced. Electromagnetic examination of seamless aluminum alloy tube is most effective when the wall thickness does not exceed the SDP or in heavier tube walls when discontinuities of interest are within one SDP. The limit for detecting metallurgical or mechanical discontinuities by way of conventional eddy current sensors is generally accepted to be approximately three times the SDP point and is referred to as the effective depth of penetration (EDP).

Note 2: The standard depth of penetration is defined by the following equations:



Equation E0215-22_1

where:

SDP   =   one standard depth of penetration, m,
f   =   frequency, Hz (cycles per second), and
σ   =   conductivity, Siemens/metre.

or:

Equation E0215-22_2

where:

SDP   =   one standard depth of penetration, in.,
f   =   frequency in Hz (cycles per second), and
σ   =   conductivity, % IACS.

Scope

1.1 This practice2 is for standardizing eddy current equipment employed in the examination of seamless aluminum-alloy tube. Artificial discontinuities consisting of flat-bottomed or through holes, or both, are employed as the means of standardizing the eddy current system. General requirements for eddy current examination procedures are included.

1.2 Procedures for fabrication of reference standards are given in X1.1 and X2.1.

1.3 This practice is intended for the examination of tubular products having nominal diameters up to 4 in. (101.6 mm) and wall thicknesses up to the standard depth of penetration (SDP) of eddy currents for the particular alloy (conductivity) being examined and the examination frequency being used.

Note 1: This practice may also be used for larger diameters or heavier walls up to the effective depth of penetration (EDP) of eddy currents as long as adequate resolution is obtained and as specified by the using party or parties.

1.4 This practice does not establish acceptance criteria. They must be established by the using party or parties.

1.5 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Details
Book of Standards Volume: 03.03
Developed by Subcommittee: E07.07
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.1520/E0215-22
ICS Code: 77.040.20