Standard Active Last Updated: Jul 21, 2022
ASTM D8431-22

Standard Test Method for Detection of Water-soluble Petroleum Oils by A-TEEM Optical Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Significance and Use

5.1 Source water protection calls for a rapid and reliable optical method to identify and quantify the oil spill contamination, such as water-soluble fraction of aromatic compounds from the BTEX family (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and naphthalene from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) group.

5.2 This test method identifies the presence of contamination and quantifies the target contamination component(s) to provide a threshold-based alert signal.

5.3 This test method can be used by drinking water treatment plant operators and decision makers as a first line of defense for both initially detecting petroleum product spills, as well as tracking attenuation over time, in source water to prevent contaminant uptake into the processed water and treatment infrastructure.


1.1 This test method covers the (1) detection of trace level (µg/L range) of oil and petroleum (water-soluble fraction) pollutants in surface and ground drinking water sources, (2) identification of the compounds, and (3) alerting analysts with a contaminant concentration prediction. This test method facilitates identification and quantification from 20 to 1000 µg/L of target contaminants, including: water-soluble fraction of aromatic compounds from the BTEX family (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and naphthalene from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) group, referred to as BTEXN in this test method, in water samples with up to 15 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The main approach involves analyzing and characterizing key water intake locations before the treatment and developing the contaminant library. The water-soluble (BTEXN) contaminants are associated with, but not limited to petroleum oils and fuels including commercial diesel fuel, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, fuel oil and lubricate oil, etc.

1.2 The data sets are analyzed using multivariate methods to test contaminant identification and quantification. The multivariate methods include classification and regression algorithms to analyze fluorescence EEM data acquired in the laboratory. The common goal of these algorithms is to reduce multidimensionality and eliminate noise of fluorescence and background signals. Automated identification-quantification methods linked directly to the instrument acquisition-analysis software are commercially available.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 11.02
Developed by Subcommittee: D19.06
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.1520/D8431-22
ICS Code: 13.060.50