Standard Active Last Updated: Oct 06, 2021
ASTM D8405-21

Standard Test Method for Evaluating PM2.5 Sensors or Sensor Systems Used in Indoor Air Applications

Significance and Use

5.1 Poor indoor air quality has been implicated in significant adverse acute and chronic impacts on occupant health and performance. The ability to assess the components contributing to poor indoor air quality is critical for determining best practices for improving indoor air quality.

5.2 Measurement of pollutants in indoor environments using sensors and sensor systems provides information needed to improve indoor air quality through pollutant source control, ventilation, filtration or other treatments.

5.3 This method uses a test characterization chamber system equipped with reference monitor(s) to evaluate the response of test sensors or test sensor systems to specific types of particles (for example, salt, polystyrene latex, or dust). To facilitate reproducible results, the test particles used within this method are standardized and have known properties. The user is cautioned that a single particle type is not representative of all particles found indoors. The relative response of test sensors or test sensor systems to a reference monitor can vary by a factor of two for different particle types (for example, primary or secondary, organic or inorganic, outdoor or indoor origin; see 6.11.3 for further discussion). Furthermore, the user is cautioned that the lower limit of particle size detection for optical test sensors and test sensor systems is generally 0.3 μm in diameter; particles below this size are generally undetected and may represent a significant health concern as well.


1.1 This test method uses a chamber system to evaluate the performance of stationary PM2.5 sensors (sensors) and particle sensor systems (sensor systems) subjected to various test conditions, including temperature, relative humidity, PM2.5 concentration, and coarse PM interferent concentration.

1.1.1 This test method covers sensors and sensor systems that can be continuously powered and continuously operated for the duration of any test described in this method through line power or an internal battery of sufficient output. This test method is not meant to evaluate sensors or sensor systems without these capabilities.

1.1.2 This test method evaluates the performance of sensors and sensor systems that allow users to collect data in a systemic manner to assess the capabilities and limitations of these devices.

1.1.3 This test method is not meant to evaluate sensors or sensor systems without data storage and recording capabilities.

1.1.4 This test method is not intended to evaluate indoor air quality sensors and sensor systems for purposes of regulation of outdoor air, homeland security, law enforcement or forensic activity.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 11.07
Developed by Subcommittee: D22.05
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.1520/D8405-21
ICS Code: 13.040.30