Significance and Use
5.1 Piling specifications often prescribe the maximum allowable pile deviation from the planned inclination. Such a deviation can be the result of variable soil profile, a drilling rig that is inadequate for the job and/or faulty workmanship. There is evidence to show that loading a pile that exceeds the specified inclination can introduce excessive bending moments and shear forces if the pile was designed strictly for axial loads. In excavation support consisting of a contiguous piled wall or diaphragm wall, an excessive deviation may eventually decrease the available basement space or create undesired gaps in adjacent piles and permit seepage or ground loss. Efficient control of pile inclination is therefore of utmost importance.
Note 2: Measuring the excavation profile to infer the pile inclination has the additional benefit of enabling the contractor to estimate the actual volume of concrete that will be needed. In addition, knowledge of the finished pile profile may assist in the analysis of pile integrity tests and load tests.
1.1 The test procedures described in this standard measure the inclination of deep foundation elements, including elements in the excavation stage. These Procedures apply to all deep foundations, referred to herein as “piles,” regardless of their method of installation.
1.2 This standard provides minimum requirements for measuring the inclination of deep foundations. Plans, specifications, and/or provisions prepared by a qualified engineer may provide additional requirements and procedures as needed to satisfy the objectives of a particular test program.
1.3 This standard provides the following test Procedures:
Procedure A (Inclinometer Testing)—for testing both open boreholes and constructed piles
Procedure B (Pendulum Testing)—for testing open boreholes
1.4 Apparati and procedures herein designated “optional” may produce different test results and may be used only when approved by a qualified engineer (hereafter “the Engineer”). The word “shall” indicates a mandatory provision, and the word “should” indicates a recommended or advisory provision. Imperative sentences indicate mandatory provisions.
1.5 The Engineer shall design and approve the test configuration and test procedures.
1.6 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. This standard also includes illustrations and appendices intended only for explanatory or advisory use.
1.7 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.8 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice .
1.9 The procedures used to specify how data are collected, recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.11 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.